History of Asia

Yoshinaka Kiso [Minamoto no Yoshinaka] The life of a military commander who was defeated by Minamoto no Yoritomo because he could not become a winner

Last updated:2022-07-25

Kiso (Minamoto no Yoshinaka) Speaking of which, [crude redneck] [war lover] [female lover] It is said that the reason why he often imagines a character with a triple time signature is that it is interpreted as a warlike and angry personality in The Tale of the Heike, and it is written as such.

Actually Yoshinaka doesn't like fighting very much.

Battle of Ichihara, Battle of Kurikara Pass, Battle of Hojuji Temple, Battle of Ujigawa Etc. were all battles set up by the enemy.

He also had the spirit of self-sacrifice, saying that if someone feels sad, he will be sacrificed.

So this time, Kiso (Minamoto) Yoshinaka I will dig deeper.

The background of Yoshinaka Kiso [Minamoto no Yoshinaka]

Yoshinaka was born in Musashi Province, but moved to Shinano Province after his father died.

He played well in the magnificent land of Shinano, learned well, and grew up to be a kind and controversial young man.

1154 Yoshinaka, who was born in Musashi Province, was born as a child of Minamoto no Yoshikata. Yoshinori was the younger brother of Minamoto no Yoshitomo, and Yoritomo and Yoshinaka were cousins.

Around this time, Mr. Taira began to strengthen his power, and Minamoto no Yoshikata became a son-in-law of Mr. Chichibu of Musashi Province and was born to his daughter in an attempt to strengthen ties with the Kanto lords as a new force. Was Yoshinaka.

However, in 1153, the Okura Battle with Minamoto no Yoshitomo, who was also expanding into the Kanto region. And Yoshinori loses his life. yet. Yoshinaka, who was a child, fled to Shinano Province with his mother.

Get a lifetime companion in Shinano Province, where you spent your youth

Yoshinaka in Shinano Province is Kaneto Nakahara of Kokufu. Will be protected by.

At this time, he did not give his name as the Minamoto clan [ Kisojiro ] Because he called himself [ Yoshinaka Kiso ] Has come to be called. Also, Kaneto Nakahara's son, Kanehira Imai and Kanemitsu Higuchi Grow up like Yoshinaka and his brothers, and play an important role with Yoshinaka Kiso when subduing the Heike.

Later, Yoshinaka's love affair Tomoe Gozen She is also said to be the daughter of Kaneto Nakahara.

However, Tomoe Gozen appears only in The Tale of the Heike and is said to be a fantasy person.

The Heiji rebellion where Taira and Genji confronted each other in 1159 after the passage of time. Minamoto no Yoshitomo was struck and his son Yoritomo was exiled to Izu. Yoshitsune Kuro, who was a suckling child, is Hidehira Fujiwara of Hiraizumi, Oshu. Will be raised in.

Prince Mochihito and Genji who stood up to defeat Taira

1180 , Prince Mochihito, the third prince of Go-Shirakawa, issued an order calling for the overthrow of Mr. Taira.

In response, Minamoto no Yorimasa and others will raise troops. At this time, to those who are related to Genji all over the country Minamoto no Yukiie Visited, Yoritomo, Yoshinaka I visited.

Prince Mochihito headed for Kyoto with Minamoto no Yorimasa, but was defeated by Taira no Kiyomori's army.

Minamoto no Yoritomo, who was raised in Izu Province at the same time, did not die, but [ Battle of Ishibashiyama ], I was defeated by Mr. Taira's army.

Minamoto no Yoritomo and Yoshinaka's army continue to make good progress

Around this time, Yoshinaka was worried about raising troops, but when Mr. Kasahara, who had teamed up with Mr. Taira, attacked, he decided to devote himself to the battle.

This [ Battle of Ichihara ] Was controlled by Yoshinaka, who subordinated the samurai corps from all over Shinano. In addition, the vassals and childhood friend corps who served his father, Yoshinori, rushed to Yoshinaka and the scale of the army increased.

On the other hand, Battle of Ishibashiyama Yoritomo tried to revive from [ Battle of Fujigawa ] When the victory is taken from Mr. Taira, 1181 Yoshinaka's army and Taira's subjugation army collide in Echigo.

The number of Yoshinaka troops was less than half of the 60,000 Taira clan, but they ruled a splendid victory. As it was, Yoshinaka headed for Kyoto from Echigo on the Hokuriku Expressway.

Present his son as a hostage to save his uncle

Meanwhile, Mr. Takeda of Kai Genji, who had been invited by Minamoto no Yoritomo and Yoshinaka to subdue the Heike, decided to join Minamoto no Yoritomo. At this time, Mr. Takeda said, [ Yoshinaka communicates with the Heike . ] And give false information to Yoritomo.

Yoritomo, who was not happy with Yoshinaka's expansion, sent his army in March 1183 as soon as he had an excuse to attack Shinano, although he did not know if he believed in this lie. However, Yoshinaka said that there was no reason to fight between the Genji who should defeat the Heike, and returned his army to Echigo.

Surprised by this, Yoritomo handed over two hostile uncles or took his firstborn hostage . ] I approached Yoshinaka to make that choice. Yoshinaka responded to this request by Firstborn Yoshitaka Kiso instead of his two uncles. Was presented to Kamakura.

Yoritomo concludes a consensus on this serious choice of Yoshinaka. Firstborn Yoshitaka later became the son-in-law of Yoritomo's daughter Ohime.

This hostage of the firstborn has the intention of Yoshinaka, and if he hands over his uncle who was angry with Yoritomo, he will surely lose his life. Say it was.

Yoshinaka Kiso was a person who didn't want to lose his life and had the depth to protect it to the end once he put it in his pocket. It's a big difference from Yoritomo, who cuts off his younger brothers ...

Battle of Kurikara Pass, which won the victory with the total of fire cows

April 1183 to avenge Yoshinaka, who ruled the Hokuriku region from Shinano Province From Kyoto [ Taira no Koremori ] Has attacked a large army of 100,000.

Taira no Koremori will drop the castle of the anti-Taira clan, Hiuchijo, in Kaga Province.

This [ Siege of Hiuchi Castle ], Yoshinaka's army retreated to Etchu Province. At this time, if he catches the information of Mr. Taira's pursuit unit 5000, Yoshinaka will surprise and win with 6000 soldiers.

* [ Battle of Hannyano ]

And the rout Taira army is Kurikara Pass I drove into.

May 11 Then Yoshinaka secretly puts his army behind the Taira clan and prepares for a night attack.

Then, on the night when the Taira clan's army fell asleep, they attacked at once. However, it was not the humans who attacked, but the large army of cows with torches tied to the horns . And it is said that the number is 400-500.

The Taira clan's army is confused by the raging army of cows, and the 70,000 soldiers of the main team flee to our side. Taking advantage of the turmoil, Yoshinaka Kiso's main corps attacked. The destination of Mr. Taira who escaped the attack was the cliff of Kurikara Pass.

It is reported that Taira's military commanders and soldiers who were cut off from the retreat fell to the cliff one after another, and mountains of the dead were piled up underneath. For this reason, this cliff was named Jigokudani.

A miraculous attack strategy that ties a torch to the horn of this cow [ Fire cow's total ] Is a famous scene that appears in Genpei Jōsuiki, but since this historical material was written in posterity, it is doubtful whether it is true or not.

In any case, this Battle of Kurikara Pass Needless to say, it caused great damage to Mr. Taira.

Yoshinaka Kiso fulfills his long-cherished desire

Battle of Kurikara Pass Yoshinaka, who won a big victory in, marches to Kyoto from around Hokuriku.

End of July 1183 I entered Kyoto, which I had longed for.

By this time, Taira no Kiyomori had already passed away, and his third son, Taira no Munemori, took over.

Taira no Munemori plans to flee to the West with Emperor Go-Shirakawa and Emperor Antoku to the approaching Yoshinaka army. This is what is commonly referred to as [ Taira's Leaving the Capital ] At this time, Go-Shirakawa fell into the capital by acting differently from Mr. Taira, and was later protected by Yoshinaka Kiso.

Under the protection of Yoshinaka, Emperor Go-Shirakawa took away Emperor Antoku and sent Taira to Yoshinaka as a rebel who brought out three kinds of sacred treasures. In addition, it became an urgent task to decide on a new emperor, and the next emperor was decided, but this issue of succession to the throne changed the relationship between Yoshinaka and Go-Shirakawa to the worst.

Succession to the throne and Minamoto no Yoshinaka

Yoshinaka thought that the child who was the bereaved child of Prince Mochihito was suitable for the next emperor.

Genji was able to raise troops because of Prince Mochihito's decree, and he insisted that it was natural for Prince Mochihito's son, who was the greatest contributor to saving Kyoto from Taira, to become the next emperor.

However, Go-Shirakawa intended to enthrone the person who was the younger brother of Emperor Antoku.

Both Pope Go-Shirakawa and the officials around him were worried that if the person who promoted Yoshinaka Kiso became the emperor, Yoshinaka's tyranny would start next.

Conflict between Yoshinaka Kiso and Pope Go-Shirakawa

Yoshinaka's speculation cannot be fulfilled August 20, 1183 Emperor Go-Toba Is enthroned.

Then, Pope Go-Shirakawa takes in friends such as Minamoto no Yukiie who have fought against Yoshinaka and isolates Yoshinaka. Furthermore, while Yoshinaka was on an expedition to Saigoku, Go-Shirakawa allowed Minamoto no Yoshitsune and others to go to Joraku and shortened the distance to Minamoto no Yoritomo.

Yoshinaka, who could not forgive Pope Shirakawa after trying to value Minamoto no Yoritomo, who had less achievement than himself, returned from the West to avenge the Pope [ Hojujiden . ] Will be attacked. This is the Hojuji Battle is.

However, by the time Yoshinaka arrived, moats and fences were laid around the palace and were protected by monks and generals. Some soldiers, who were afraid to become enemies in the morning, left Yoshinaka's army.

Nevertheless, Yoshinaka's reliable vassals, Kanehira Imai and Kanemitsu Higuchi, turned the battle situation upside down. After feeling bad for the clouds, Pope Shirakawa tries to escape from the Imperial Palace, but is arrested and imprisoned by the Yoshinaka army.

The remaining monks and generals were killed in action, and the Gosho was burned.

Yoshinaka Kiso becomes the first Shogun to conquer Genji

Yoshinaka and Go-Shirakawa due to the Hojuji battle Relationship is now irreparable.

Yoshinaka didn't take his life, but Regent Konoe Motomichi was a favorite of Go-Shirakawa. And regented his breathing human.

In addition, the aides of Pope Go-Shirakawa were dismissed from the official position one after another, January 11, 1184 . Finally, Yoshinaka Kiso is Shogun . Will be inaugurated. It is not well known that Genji's first Shogun was Yoshinaka, not Yoritomo.

In the case of Yoshinaka, he died a year after he took office, so it can be said that he was just a shogun.

The end of Minamoto no Yoshinaka

After being imprisoned, Minamoto no Yoritomo sent troops to Kyoto to help Pope Shirakawa.

1184 Minamoto no Yoshitsune and Minamoto no Noriori set up in Uji and Seta in Kyoto and attacked Kyoto from both sides Battle of Uji River Will start the war.

According to The Tale of the Heike, the Yoshitsune army is about 60,000 and the Kiso Yoshinaka army is about 200, and there is almost no chance of winning against Yoshinaka.

The Yoshinaka army, who had escaped from Kyoto because of their lives, had seven horses, including Yoshinaka, when they reached the shores of Lake Biwa. Among them were Kanehira Imai, who grew up like a brother, and Tomoe Gozen, who fought together as a military commander despite being a woman.

Yoshinaka Kiso, who decided that it was the only time to escape, did not feel good to know that [ Kiso-den had taken a woman to the end] toward Tomoe Gozen. I want you to leave here and mourn my bodhi ] Is said.

It may seem like too much to say to Tomoe Gozen, who has followed me so far, but [ I want you to come back alive . ] It is a scene where you can get a glimpse of Yoshinaka's wish. Tomoe Gozen said to that word, [ If this is the farewell of this life, let me show you the final battle of Tomoe . ], And rushes to the oncoming warriors and twists the opponent's neck, which is a powerful technique.

And I left the battlefield without turning around. It is a terrible scene that tells the battlefield at that time, but the strength of Tomoe Gozen and the strength to move on to the future are well expressed.

After that, they were beaten up while fighting, and finally Yoshinaka Kiso and Kanehira Imai. Finally, when Yoshinaka Kiso was shot by an arrow and lost his life, Kanehira Imai, who saw it, also committed suicide.

In this way, the Kiso Yoshinaka army was in Awazugahara's [ Battle of Awazu . ], And it is written in The Tale of the Heike that Minamoto no Yoritomo won.

Yoshinaka Kiso had a short life of 31 years old, but he had a short but spectacular life.