As a result of a referendum in the United Kingdom in June 2016, we officially decided to withdraw from UE.
A new agreement with the EU on movement, trade, immigration and security cooperation, etc., without complying with EU regulations, on December 31, 2020, after various graces and discussions to determine post-withdrawal relationships under UE regulations. Has been enforced.
But why did Britain choose to leave the EU? ??
British public opinion is divided by referendum
In Britain, the UK Independence Party, which advocates anti-UE, is increasing its approval rating, and even within the ruling party to which Prime Minister Cameron belongs, the number of lawmakers who are skeptical of UE has increased. Then, in January 2013, Prime Minister Cameron announced that he would hold a referendum to withdraw from the UE, and the situation began to move.
Cameron himself was a UE remnant, and many of the people were not in favor of the remnants. Therefore, he thought that if he went to the referendum, the number of people who would remain in favor of the people would be large and the secessionists could be suppressed.
However, when it was over, the withdrawal group won, although it was a close margin of 51.9% withdrawal from the remaining 48.1%. Following the referendum, Prime Minister Cameron announced his resignation, and then Prime Minister May, who took office, will negotiate withdrawal from the UE.
The referendum revealed that British society was divided into two parts.
Many of the remnants were clearly divided into supporters, such as middle-aged and blue-collar workers and low-income earners who were in favor of the elite. By region, many withdrawal votes were collected in the rural areas of England, which were left behind by economic development.
In the opinion of the blue-collar workers and the low-income earners, there were complaints that migrants from Eastern Europe were robbing their jobs. We believe that immigrants are rushing into the UK because they are members of the UE, which allows free movement within the UE area.
Why does Britain want to leave the EU?
There are many reasons why Britain wants to leave the EU, and they are all intricately intertwined.
Among them, I picked up the most representative reasons.
- British sovereignty issue
- Unemployment anxiety due to population growth
- Immigration issues and tax burden
- Economic issues such as trade agreements
Let's dig a little deeper into these details.
British sovereignty issue
Basically, countries that are members of the EU (European Union) must comply with UE law.
In fact, this rule is also what many member countries are dissatisfied with.
Every country wants to decide the law of their own country.
The United Kingdom has the authority to create, create and amend some laws within the EU, but the power of the British government is still far below that of the EU governing government.
Therefore, even if there is a law that you do not want to obey, you have to obey it unwillingly.
New laws are being created every day in Japan, but it is obvious that it would be very inconvenient without this authority.
Unemployment anxiety due to population growth
Since the countries that are members of the EU are basically free to come and go between member countries, the rapid population increase due to immigrants has become a major problem.
Many people from EU member states have moved to the United Kingdom, and the country has not been able to keep up with the rapid increase.
As a result, many towns and cities are short of hospitals and schools.
In addition, there are too many immigrants to work in the UK, and there are not enough jobs available.
In the UK, where the unemployment rate under the age of 24 is about four times that of those over the age of 25, there is a surplus of work and the social situation is not higher than the demand for personnel.
The anti-immigrant sentiment of the British people is increasing as the British people and the immigrants who have arrived in the UK are in a state of competing for a small number of jobs.
British immigration issues and economic inequality
Eastern Europe such as Poland and the Czech Republic joined the EU around 2004.
Free movement between EU member states [ immigration problem ] Is also a problem.
Polish people, in particular, moved to England and moved to England in search of a stable life. In the UK, social security is substantial, and various guarantees such as free medical expenses, employment insurance, poor system and public housing are available.
[ Child allowance introduced in Japan ] Is a sample from the United Kingdom.
Even immigrants can benefit from such social security if they follow appropriate procedures. Some immigrants even immigrate to England for social security.
But keep in mind that it is the British people who pay the taxes for those guarantees.
While the social welfare budget for these immigrants continues to grow, the anger of the people is only increasing because the budget that would otherwise be used for economic policy is also being used.
I don't know that the immigration problem mentioned earlier is robbing the jobs of old workers.
One theory is that they are separated in the labor market.
Whatever the case, it seems certain that British workers feel that immigrants are a threat.
The sluggish wages and employment situation of the UE-leaving blue-collar workers were what happened before the immigration problem became serious.
In the past, Britain was a country that emphasized full employment and social security for workers.
1979 Thatcher administration's [ neoliberal ] I made a big turn to the policy.
We promoted the privatization of state-owned enterprises. We also promoted financial liberalization, such as releasing financial markets overseas, and threw people into free competition.
This resulted in regional economic disparities due to domestic economic disparities.
With the liberalization of financial markets, London will become one of the world's leading financial districts and will grow significantly. On the other hand, the industrial area has declined and the workers working there have not been able to benefit from economic growth.
These workers saw immigrants as a threat and voted to leave the UE.
Economic issues such as trade agreements
EU member states cannot basically enter into individual trade agreements with countries other than the member states.
Japan cannot directly conclude a trade agreement with the United Kingdom, and is doing so across the UE.
The UK wants a lot of trade with countries other than the EU, but it is not free to negotiate trade deals.
The United Kingdom seems to think that if UE withdrawal becomes a reality, it will be possible to freely create new trade agreements with countries such as the United States, Australia, and Japan, which will lead to economic effects.
The peculiarities of British foreign policy
Another important factor in Britain's withdrawal from UE is its peculiarity.
In the 19th century, England entered the golden age and had colonies and autonomous territories in various places.
In 1931, the Commonwealth Realm was established on the premise of equal relations with six countries such as Canada and Australia, which were autonomous territories. After that, every time an independent country emerged, it was added to the Commonwealth Kingdom.
We still have strong ties with these countries.
On the other hand, the United States, where the British Puritans came to, was also a special existence for Britain.
In the end, Britain is a member of Europe, a leader of the Commonwealth Realm, and an ally of the United States. As a result, Britain continued to pursue a foreign policy away from European countries.
1952 EEC The predecessor framework of UE was created, but the UK actually applied for membership in 1962 . It was that. At this time, the French president, who was wary of Britain's deep ties to the United States, refused to join Britain.
In 1967, the UK submitted the application again, but it was rejected by France's refusal.
I actually joined in 1973 after becoming an EC.
Looking at these circumstances, it can be said that Britain's withdrawal from the UE was made to be no longer a mystery.
There are various other reasons for wanting to leave the EU, but looking at the above factors, it seems that we are bound by the UE and are unable to do what we want to do. There are advantages to being a member of the EU, but at present the disadvantages seem to be greater.