(PUC-RJ) The foundation of Virginia and New England, at the beginning of the 17th century, made England enter the colonial dispute in the New World. In the vast domains of the Iberian empires in the Americas, very diverse and complex societies were produced – for example, those of the V.R. from New Spain, those from the Caribbean region and those from the V.R. from Peru. However, also in the British colonies, since their formation, strong differences ended up forging very different societies. This diversity was the expression of several factors, among them are:
I – The fact that the purposes of the London and Plymouth Trading Companies were radically different, as were the populations they transported to America.
II – The predominance of mercantile and slave interests in the colonies of Virginia, to the south, contrasting with the more religious and political motivations of the Puritans who guided the occupation of the colonies to the south. north.
III – The difficulty of the Anglican Church to assert its authority and administration in the northern colonies, cradle of religious intolerance, loci from religious separatists – from Congregationalists, Presbyterians, Baptists and Anabaptists etc.
IV – The prior decision of King James I to offer private colonies to doneees or owners – such as William Penn and Lord Baltimore – in the Middle Colonies region.
Check the CORRECT alternative :
(A) I and II are correct.
(B) III and IV are correct.
(C) II and IV are correct.
(D) II and III are correct.
(E) I and IV are correctquestion 2
(PUC-RJ) “For the progress of maritime armament and navigation, which under good providence and divine protection are so important to the prosperity, security and power of this kingdom [...], no goods will be imported or exported from the countries , islands, plantations or territories belonging to His Majesty, or in His Majesty's possession, in Asia, America and Africa, in ships other than [...] those belonging to English subjects [...] and which are commanded by a English captain and crewed by a crew of three-quarters of Englishmen [...], no foreigner [...] will be able to exercise the trade of merchant or broker in one of the aforementioned places, under penalty of confiscation of all his goods and merchandise [ ...]".
Second Navigation Act of 1660. In :Pierre Deyon. Mercantilism . São Paulo:Perspectiva, 1973, p. 94-95.
Through the Navigation Act of 1660, the English government:
- established that all goods traded by any European country were transported by English ships.
- monopolized its own trade and boosted the English shipping industry, further increasing England's presence in the world's seas.
- confronted the mighty France by taking away its privileged position as a world trade intermediary.
- developed its navy, encouraged industry, expanded the Empire, opening new international markets for its agricultural surplus.
- protected English products, raw materials and manufactured goods, which should have their exit difficult, in order to generate an accumulation of precious metals in the English Kingdom.
Look at the two images below:
Image Credit:Steve Mann and Shutterstock.com
Using his knowledge of the English colonization process of the Americas, it is possible to state that:
- Image I represents the arrival of English Puritans to the north of the American continent, and image II indicates that from the beginning to the present day the relationship of British colonists with North American Indians was always peaceful.
- Image I makes it possible to affirm that the initial process of colonization carried out by the English is similar to that carried out, for example, by the Portuguese in America, stimulating the displacement of entire families with the objective of forming villages and not so much export agriculture.
- Image II is a representation of the first Thanksgiving Day, a traditional American feast, which began in the early days of colonization and is celebrated to this day, whose realization seeks to thank the good events of the year.
- Both image I and image II are false idealizations of the English colonization process in America, as there was exclusively a colonization based on monoculture and slavery, as in the American spaces controlled by Spanish and Portuguese.
Look at the columns below.
I) Northern Colonies
a) Monoculture based on tropical products for export to Europe and use of African slave labor.
II) Central Colonies
b) Characterized by polyculture and manufacturing production, fostering the domestic market.
III) Southern Colonies
c) Economic dynamism, with important commercial centers, allied to religious tolerance.
Which of the alternatives below correctly relates the two columns?
- I-b; II-c; III-a.
- I-b; II-a; III-c.
- I-c; II-b; III-a.
- I-a; II-b; III-c.
The Calvinists who inhabited England were the first to move to North America to populate and colonize it, fleeing the religious persecution resulting from the creation of Anglicanism. What other name were English Calvinists known by?
Letter C . The difference in economic and political objectives in the south and north of the English colonies was characterized by the fact that in the south, slave labor was used on large monoculture farms, and in the north there was small property and greater religious and political freedom, with no slavery occurring. on a large scale. The allocation of colonies to private individuals also resulted in the creation of diversity in the sociability of the inhabitants of the middle colonies.question 2
Letter B . The others are incorrect for the following reasons. The letter “a” it refers to goods from all countries, but the Act referred to those produced in England. The letter “c” is incorrect because the confrontation at the time was with the Netherlands and not with France. The letter “d” it is wrong because the objective was not to dispose of the agricultural surplus. And the letter “e” it is also false because the purpose of the Act was to stimulate the flow of manufactured products and not hinder them.question 3
Letter C . The images portray two moments of English colonization. Image I refers to the departure of English Puritans towards America, fleeing religious persecution and in search of building a society where they could profess their faith. Image II is a representation of Thanksgiving Day, a traditional American festival. Despite showing a fraternization with the natives, the latter were practically exterminated by the English colonists during colonization, which invalidates the option a . The displacement of families to a settlement not based on the export of agricultural products did not occur in Portuguese America, making the option b incorrect . English colonization used both colonization based on smallholdings and production for the domestic market, in the North, and production on agricultural monoculture farms, in the South, invalidating the d option. .question 4
Letter A .question 5
Letter D . The Puritans settled in the Northern colonies, forming New England.